- analogWrite() - PWM
- analogReadResolution() (Special function for M0/M0 Pro and Due)
- analogWriteResolution() (Special function for M0/M0 Pro and Due)
Bits and Bytes
- unsigned char
- unsigned int
- unsigned long
- string - char array
- String - object
Variable Scope and Qualifiers
- == equal to
- != not equal to
- < less than
- > greater than
- <= less than or equal to
- >= greater than or equal to
Pointer Access Operators
- & (bitwise and)
- | (bitwise or)
- ^ (bitwise xor)
- ~ (bitwise not)
- << (bitshift left)
- >> (bitshift right)
- ++ (increment)
- -- (decrement)
- += (compound addition)
- -= (compound subtraction)
- *= (compound multiplication)
- /= (compound division)
- &= (compound bitwise and)
- |= (compound bitwise or)
The Arduino environment can be extended through the use of libraries, just like most programming platforms. Libraries provide extra functionality for use in sketches, e.g. working with hardware or manipulating data. A number of libraries come installed with the IDE, but you can also download or create your own.
To use a library in a sketch, select it from Sketch > Import Library.
- EEPROM - reading and writing to "permanent" storage
- Ethernet - for connecting to the internet using the Arduino Ethernet Shield
- Ethernet2 - for connecting to the internet using the Arduino Ethernet Shield 2 and Arduino Leonardo Eth.
- Firmata - for communicating with applications on the computer using a standard serial protocol.
- GSM - for connecting to a GSM/GRPS network with the GSM shield.
- GSM2 - The GSM Shield V2 library has new audio commands for voice calls and command position.
- LiquidCrystal - for controlling liquid crystal displays (LCDs)
- 9 Axes Motion - for controlling NAxisMotion shield.
- SD - for reading and writing SD cards
- Servo - for controlling servo motors
- SPI - for communicating with devices using the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) Bus
- SoftwareSerial - for serial communication on any digital pins.
- Stepper - for controlling stepper motors
- TFT - for drawing text , images, and shapes on the Arduino TFT screen
- WiFi - for connecting to the internet using the Arduino WiFi shield
- Wire - Two Wire Interface (TWI/I2C) for sending and receiving data over a net of devices or sensors.
- Braccio - for controlling Arduino TinkerKit Braccio.
- Lucky - for controlling Arduino Lucky Shield
Linino boards (Yun/ Yun Mini/ Industrial 101/ Tian) Libraries
- Ciao - a easy-to-use and powerful technology that simplifies interaction between microcontroller and the "outside World".
- Bridge - Handles communication between the Linux processor and the Linino boards.
ATSAMD21G18 boards (M0/ M0 Pro/ Zero Pro/ Tian) Library
- RTC - for controlling Internal RTC on ATSAMD21G18 boards.
- Energy Saving - This library can standby microcontroller and wake-up it by external interrupt or alarm match interrupt, only ATSAMD21G18 boards.
Due Only Libraries
- Audio - Play audio files from a SD card.
- Scheduler - Manage multiple non-blocking tasks.
- USBHost - Communicate with USB peripherals like mice and keyboards.
Esplora Only Library
- Esplora - this library enable you to easily access to various sensors and actuators mounted on the Esplora board.
Arduino Robot Library
- Robot - this library enables easy access to the functions of the Arduino Robot
(Leonardo, Micro and Due)
- Keyboard - Send keystrokes to an attached computer.
- Mouse - Control cursor movement on a connected computer.
- Capacitive Sensing Library - Turns two or more Arduino pins into a capacitive sensor.