### Name

& (bitwise AND)

### Description

The bitwise AND operator is a single ampersand, &, used between two other integer expressions. Bitwise AND operates on each bit position of the surrounding expressions independently, according to this rule: if both input bits are 1, the resulting output is 1, otherwise the output is 0.

### Syntax

expression1 & expression2

### Parameters

- expression1: any valid expression
- expression2: any valid expression

### Usage

Application

### Note

In Arduino, the type int is a 16-bit value, so using & between two int expressions causes 16 simultaneous AND operations to occur. In a code fragment like:

int a = 92; // in binary: 0000000001011100

int b = 101; // in binary: 0000000001100101

int c = a & b; // result: 0000000001000100, or 68 in decimal.

Each of the 16 bits in a and b are processed by using the bitwise AND, and all 16 resulting bits are stored in c, resulting in the value 01000100 in binary, which is 68 in decimal.

One of the most common uses of bitwise AND is to select a particular bit (or bits) from an integer value, often called masking

### Examples

unsigned int a = 60; // 60 = 0011 1100

unsigned int b = 13; // 13 = 0000 1101

unsigned int c = 0;

c = a & b; // 12 = 0000 1100

Based on the reference originally written by Arduino Community, wiring.org.co and arduino.cc